and also is the root of Ger. Kaiser and Rus. tsar (see czar
). He competes as progenitor of words for "king" with Charlemagne (L. Carolus), as in Lithuanian karalius, Polish krol, Hungarian kiraly. In U.S. slang c.1900, a sheriff was Great Seizer.
cognomen of the third Roman emperor (12 C.E.-41 C.E.), born Gaius Caesar. The nickname is lit. "little boot," given when he joined his father on military campaigns when still a toddler, in full, child-sized military gear; dim. of caliga "heavy military shoe," which some related to calx "heel, tread,"
and others to a root meaning "to wrap, bind."