9 Grammatical Pitfalls
most English words beginning in -x- are of Greek origin or modern commercial coinages. East Anglian in 14c. showed a tendency to use -x- for initial sh-, sch- (cf. xal for shall), which didn't catch on but seems an improvement over the current system. As a symbol of a kiss on a letter, etc., it is recorded from 1765. In malt liquor, XX denoted "double quality" and XXX "strongest quality" (1827).
Algebraic meaning "unknown quantity" (1660 in English), sometimes said to be from medieval use, originally a crossed -r-, probably from Latin radix (see root (n.)). Other theories trace it to Arabic, but a more prosaic explanation says Descartes (1637) took x, y, z, the last three letters of the alphabet, for unknowns to correspond to a, b, c, used for known quantities.
Used allusively for "unknown person" from 1797, "something unknown" since 1859. As a type of chromosome, attested from 1902 (first so called in German; Henking, 1891). First used 1950 in Britain to designate "films deemed suitable for adults only;" adopted in U.S. Nov. 1, 1968.
22nd letter of the Greek alphabet, representing a -kh- sound (see ch). The letter is shaped like an X, and so the Greek letter name was used figuratively to signify such a shape or arrangement (e.g. khiasma "two things placed crosswise;" khiastos "arranged diagonally; marked with an X;" khiazein "to mark with an 'X', to write the letter 'X'"). Some dialects used chi to represent the -ks- sound properly belonging to xi; Latin picked this up and the sound value of chi in Latin-derived alphabets is now that of English X.
chi or khi (kī)
Symbol χ The 22nd letter of the Greek alphabet.
A variety of amphetamine narcotic: Ecstasy, by emergency order of the Drug Enforcement Administration, illegal (1980s+ Narcotics)
A former wife or husband, girlfriend or boyfriend, etc: He introduced his ex rather casually, considering they were together 27 years (1929+)
A person who is ostentatiously and smugly knowing; smart aleck, smart-ass: the way an old-time carny handles a tough wisenheimer with the aid of a hammer
[1904+; fr wise plus the German or Yiddish element -enheimer found in surnames based on German place names ending in -heim; the coinage may be motivated by the humorous attempt to add weight to the term and is perhaps tinged with anti-Semitism]
Tense; anxious; on edge: She was a tall, angular woman, tightly wound, with a Nefertiti profile and hands made for scratching (1788+)
Chicago: love visiting ChitownRelated Terms