in English history, any sum of money, disguised as a gift, extorted by various English kings, from Edward IV to James I, from their subjects without Parliament's consent. Forced loans had been taken earlier, but Edward IV discarded even the pretense of repayment, and the word benevolence was first used in 1473 to describe an extorted gift. Richard III's attempts to raise benevolences were opposed by Parliament, which in 1484 abolished them as "new and unlawful inventions." In spite of the law, Henry VII made widespread use of the practice, in 1495 persuading Parliament to make those who had promised gifts legally liable for unpaid arrears. Henry VIII demanded benevolences in 1528 and 1545, but the practice was not followed by his successors. It was revived by James I, who received large sums in 1614. Further attempts to exact gifts in 1615, 1620, and 1622 aroused considerable protest, and the practice was finally discontinued.
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