the quality or state of being dichromatic.
Also called dichromatopsia [dahy-kroh-muh-top-see-uh] . Ophthalmology. a defect of vision in which the retina responds to only two of the three primary colors. Compare monochromatism ( def 2 ), trichromatism ( def 3 ).

1880–85; dichromat(ic) + -ism

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World English Dictionary
dichromatic (ˌdaɪkrəʊˈmætɪk)
1.  Also: dichroic having or consisting of only two colours
2.  (of animal species) having two different colour varieties that are independent of sex and age
3.  able to perceive only two (instead of three) primary colours and the mixes of these colours

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Medical Dictionary

dichromatism di·chro·ma·tism (dī-krō'mə-tĭz'əm)

  1. The state of being dichromatic.

  2. A form of colorblindness in which only two of the three fundamental colors can be distinguished due to a lack of one of the retinal cone pigments. Also called dichromatopsia, dyschromatopsia, parachromatopsia.

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