an expression whose meaning is not predictable from the usual meanings of its constituent elements, as kick the bucket or hang one's head, or from the general grammatical rules of a language, as the table round for the round table, and that is not a constituent of a larger expression of like characteristics.
a language, dialect, or style of speaking peculiar to a people.
a construction or expression of one language whose parts correspond to elements in another language but whose total structure or meaning is not matched in the same way in the second language.
the peculiar character or genius of a language.
a distinct style or character, in music, art, etc.: the idiom of Bach.

1565–75; < Latin idiōma < Greek idíōma peculiarity, specific property equivalent to idiō- (variant stem of idioûsthai to make one's own, appropriate, verbal derivative of idiós; see idio-) + -ma noun suffix of result

1. See phrase. Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
idiom (ˈɪdɪəm)
1.  a group of words whose meaning cannot be predicted from the meanings of the constituent words, as for example (It was raining) cats and dogs
2.  linguistic usage that is grammatical and natural to native speakers of a language
3.  the characteristic vocabulary or usage of a specific human group or subject
4.  the characteristic artistic style of an individual, school, period, etc
[C16: from Latin idiōma peculiarity of language, from Greek; see idio-]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Word Origin & History

1588, "form of speech peculiar to a people or place," from M.Fr. idiome, from L.L. idioma "a peculiarity in language," from Gk. idioma "peculiarity, peculiar phraseology," from idioumai "I make my own," from idios "personal, private," prop. particular to oneself, from PIE *swed-yo-, suffixed form of
base *s(w)e-, pronoun of the third person and reflexive (referring back to the subject of a sentence), also used in forms denoting the speaker's social group, "(we our-)selves" (cf. Skt. svah, Avestan hva-, O.Pers. huva "one's own," khva-data "lord," lit. "created from oneself;" Gk. hos "he, she, it;" L. suescere "to accustom, get accustomed," sodalis "companion;" O.C.S. svoji "his, her, its," svojaku "relative, kinsman;" Goth. swes "one's own;" O.N. sik "oneself;" Ger. Sein; O.Ir. fein "self, himself"). Idiomatic is first attested 1712.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Cultural Dictionary

idiom definition

A traditional way of saying something. Often an idiom, such as “under the weather,” does not seem to make sense if taken literally. Someone unfamiliar with English idioms would probably not understand that to be “under the weather” is to be sick. (See examples under “Idioms.”)

The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences
But they seem to sense the necessity of speaking the jazz idiom out of their
  own convictions.
The dialogue is brilliant too, with every character speaking and thinking in
  his or her own idiom.
There are no traces of the restraint imposed by a foreign idiom.
The grammatical difficulties, that is, are complicated by considerations of
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