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lower1

[loh-er] /ˈloʊ ər/
verb (used with object)
1.
to cause to descend; let or put down:
to lower a flag.
2.
to make lower in height or level:
to lower the water in a canal.
3.
to reduce in amount, price, degree, force, etc.
4.
to make less loud:
Please lower your voice.
5.
to bring down in rank or estimation; degrade; humble; abase (oneself), as by some sacrifice of self-respect or dignity:
His bad actions lowered him in my eyes.
6.
Music. to make lower in pitch; flatten.
7.
Phonetics. to alter the articulation of (a vowel) by increasing the distance of the tongue downward from the palate:
The vowel of “clerk” is lowered to (ä) in the British pronunciation.
verb (used without object)
8.
to become lower, grow less, or diminish, as in amount, intensity, or degree:
The brook lowers in early summer. Stock prices rise and lower constantly.
9.
to descend; sink:
the sun lowering in the west.
adjective
10.
comparative of low1 .
11.
of or pertaining to those portions of a river farthest from the source.
12.
(often initial capital letter) Stratigraphy. noting an early division of a period, system, or the like:
the Lower Devonian.
noun
13.
a denture for the lower jaw.
14.
a lower berth.
Origin
1150-1200
1150-1200; Middle English, comparative of low1 (adj.)
Related forms
lowerable, adjective
Synonyms
1. drop, depress. 3. decrease, diminish, lessen. 4. soften. 5. humiliate, dishonor, disgrace, debase.
Antonyms
3. raise, increase. 5. elevate, honor.

lower2

[lou-er, louuh r] /ˈlaʊ ər, laʊər/
verb (used without object)
1.
to be dark and threatening, as the sky or the weather.
2.
to frown, scowl, or look sullen; glower:
He lowers at people when he's in a bad mood.
noun
3.
a dark, threatening appearance, as of the sky or weather.
4.
a frown or scowl.
Also, lour.
Origin
1250-1300; Middle English lour (noun), louren (v.) to frown, lurk; akin to German lauern, Dutch loeren
Synonyms
1. darken, threaten.

low1

[loh] /loʊ/
adjective, lower, lowest.
1.
situated, placed, or occurring not far above the ground, floor, or base:
a low shelf.
2.
of small extent upward; not high or tall:
A low wall surrounds the property.
3.
not far above the horizon, as a planet:
The moon was low in the sky.
4.
lying or being below the general level:
low ground.
5.
designating or pertaining to regions near sea level, especially near the sea:
low countries.
6.
bending or passing far downward; deep:
a low bow.
7.
(of a garment) low-necked; décolleté:
The dress she wore was fashionably low.
8.
rising but slightly from a surface:
a low relief on a frieze.
9.
of less than average or normal height or depth, as a liquid or stream:
The river is low this time of year.
10.
near the first of a series:
a low number.
11.
ranked near the beginning or bottom on some scale of measurement:
a low income bracket.
12.
indicating the bottom or the point farthest down:
the low point in his creative life.
13.
lacking in strength, energy, or vigor; feeble; weak:
to feel low and listless.
14.
providing little nourishment or strength, as a diet.
15.
of small number, amount, degree, force, intensity, etc.:
low visibility; a generator with a low output.
16.
indicated or represented by a low number:
A low latitude is one relatively near the equator.
17.
soft: subdued; not loud:
a low murmur.
18.
Music. produced by relatively slow vibrations, as sounds; grave in pitch.
19.
assigning or attributing little worth, value, excellence, or the like:
a low estimate of a new book.
20.
containing a relatively small amount:
a diet low in starches.
21.
nearing depletion; not adequately supplied:
low on funds; Our stock of towels is low.
22.
depressed or dejected:
low spirits.
23.
far down in the scale of rank or estimation; humble:
of low birth.
24.
of inferior quality or character:
a low grade of fabric; a low type of intellect.
25.
lacking in dignity or elevation, as of thought or expression.
26.
mean, base, or disreputable:
low tricks; low companions.
27.
coarse or vulgar:
entertainment of a low sort.
28.
Boxing. struck or delivered below a contestant's belt.
29.
Biology. having a relatively simple structure; not complex in organization.
30.
Phonetics. (of a vowel) articulated with a relatively large opening above the tongue, as the vowels of hat, hut, hot, ought, etc.
Compare high (def 23).
31.
Automotive. of, pertaining to, or operating at the gear transmission ratio at which the drive shaft moves at the lowest speed with relation to the speed of the engine crankshaft, used especially for temporarily overcoming the weight or inertia of the vehicle; first:
low gear.
32.
Baseball. (of a pitched ball) passing the plate at a level below that of the batter's knees:
a low curve.
33.
Cards. having less value than other cards:
a low card.
34.
Metallurgy. having a relatively small amount of a specified constituent (usually used in combination):
low-carbon steel.
35.
Chiefly British. holding to Low Church principles and practices.
adverb, lower, lowest.
36.
in or to a low position, point, degree, etc.:
The raiders crouched low in the bushes.
37.
near the ground, floor, or base; not aloft:
The plane flew low.
38.
in or to a humble or abject state:
Some live low while others live high. She swore she would bring him low.
39.
in or to a condition of depletion, prostration, or death:
The gas in the tank is running low.
40.
at comparatively small cost; cheaply:
to buy something low and sell it high.
41.
at or to a low pitch, volume, intensity, etc.:
to turn the radio low; lights turned down low.
42.
in a low tone; softly; quietly; to speak low.
43.
Archaic. far down in time; late.
noun
44.
something that is low, as ground or prices:
numerous marshy lows in the forest; the recent low in the stock market.
45.
Automotive. low gear; first gear.
46.
Meteorology. an atmospheric low-pressure system; cyclone.
Compare high (def 37).
47.
Cards.
  1. the lowest trump card.
  2. a card of small value, or of lower value than other cards.
  3. the lowest score in a game.
  4. a player having such a score.
48.
a point of deepest decline, vulgarity, etc.:
a new low in tastelessness.
49.
Slang. a period of intense depression or discomfort, when the effects of a drug have subsided.
Idioms
50.
lay low,
  1. to overpower or kill; defeat:
    to lay one's attackers low.
  2. to knock down; make prostrate.
  3. Informal. to lie low.
51.
lie low,
  1. to conceal oneself:
    He had to lie low for a while.
  2. to do nothing until the right opportunity develops; bide one's time:
    Until the dispute is settled, you would do best to lie low.
Origin
1125-75; Middle English lowe, lohe (adj. and noun), earlier lāh < Old Norse lāgr (adj.); cognate with Old Frisian lēge, lēch, Dutch laag, Old High German laege; akin to lie2
Related forms
lowish, adjective
lowness, noun
overlowness, noun
Synonyms
13. exhausted, sinking, expiring, dying. 17. quiet. 18. deep. 22. dispirited, unhappy, sad. 23. lowly, meek, obscure. 26. ignoble, degraded, servile. 27. rude, crude. See mean2 .
Antonyms
1–3. high.
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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Examples from the web for lower
  • Scientists may have found a source of relief for patients with chronic lower back pain in bacteria that cause food poisoning.
  • The interior and lower line or curve of an arch is known as the intrados.
  • Two lower courts have already ruled in favor of the government.
  • The flora of lower silesia is strongly influenced by geological and climatic history.
  • This lower density air then rises, and is replaced by cooler, higher density air.
  • The smaller lower courtyard is given over to flower gardens and a shaded hammock.
  • If he only reaches the lower access, the game continues normally.
  • In the lower right corner, under the horse, a woman lies on the ground.
  • The lower teeth should protrude farther than their upper, meeting in an underbite.
  • They had a lower rate of fire and were used as siege engines.
British Dictionary definitions for lower

lour

/laʊə/
verb
1.
a variant spelling of lower2
Derived Forms
louring, lowering, adjective
louringly, loweringly, adverb

lower1

/ˈləʊə/
adjective
1.
being below one or more other things: the lower shelf, the lower animals
2.
reduced in amount or value: a lower price
3.
(maths) (of a limit or bound) less than or equal to one or more numbers or variables
4.
(sometimes capital) (geology) denoting the early part or division of a period, system, formation, etc: Lower Silurian
verb
5.
(transitive) to cause to become low or on a lower level; bring, put, or cause to move down
6.
(transitive) to reduce or bring down in estimation, dignity, value, etc: to lower oneself
7.
to reduce or be reduced: to lower one's confidence
8.
(transitive) to make quieter: to lower the radio
9.
(transitive) to reduce the pitch of
10.
(transitive) (phonetics) to modify the articulation of (a vowel) by bringing the tongue further away from the roof of the mouth
11.
(intransitive) to diminish or become less
Derived Forms
lowerable, adjective
Word Origin
C12 (comparative of low1); C17 (vb)

lower2

/ˈlaʊə/
verb (intransitive)
1.
(esp of the sky, weather, etc) to be overcast, dark, and menacing
2.
to scowl or frown
noun
3.
a menacing scowl or appearance
Derived Forms
lowering, louring, adjective
loweringly, louringly, adverb

low1

/ləʊ/
adjective
1.
having a relatively small distance from base to top; not tall or high: a low hill, a low building
2.
  1. situated at a relatively short distance above the ground, sea level, the horizon, or other reference position: low cloud
  2. (in combination): low-lying
3.
  1. involving or containing a relatively small amount of something: a low supply
  2. (in combination): low-pressure
4.
  1. having little value or quality
  2. (in combination): low-grade
5.
of less than the usual or expected height, depth, or degree: low temperature
6.
  1. (of numbers) small
  2. (of measurements) expressed in small numbers
7.
unfavourable: a low opinion
8.
not advanced in evolution: a low form of plant life
9.
deep: a low obeisance
10.
coarse or vulgar: a low conversation
11.
  1. inferior in culture or status
  2. (in combination): low-class
12.
in a physically or mentally depressed or weakened state
13.
designed so as to reveal the wearer's neck and part of the bosom: a low neckline
14.
with a hushed tone; quiet or soft: a low whisper
15.
of relatively small price or monetary value: low cost
16.
(music) relating to or characterized by a relatively low pitch
17.
(of latitudes) situated not far north or south of the equator
18.
having little or no money
19.
abject or servile
20.
(phonetics) of, relating to, or denoting a vowel whose articulation is produced by moving the back of the tongue away from the soft palate or the blade away from the hard palate, such as for the a in English father Compare high (sense 22)
21.
(of a gear) providing a relatively low forward speed for a given engine speed
22.
(usually capital) of or relating to the Low Church
adverb
23.
in a low position, level, degree, intensity, etc: to bring someone low
24.
at a low pitch; deep: to sing low
25.
at a low price; cheaply: to buy low
26.
lay low
  1. to cause to fall by a blow
  2. to overcome, defeat or destroy
27.
lie low
  1. to keep or be concealed or quiet
  2. to wait for a favourable opportunity
noun
28.
a low position, level, or degree: an all-time low
29.
an area of relatively low atmospheric pressure, esp a depression
30.
(electronics) the voltage level in a logic circuit corresponding to logical zero Compare high (sense 40)
Derived Forms
lowness, noun
Word Origin
C12 lāh, from Old Norse lāgr; related to Old Frisian lēch low, Dutch laag

low2

/ləʊ/
noun
1.
the sound uttered by cattle; moo
verb
2.
to make or express by a low or moo
Word Origin
Old English hlōwan; related to Dutch loeien, Old Saxon hlōian

Low

/ləʊ/
noun
1.
Sir David. 1891–1963, British political cartoonist, born in New Zealand: created Colonel Blimp See blimp2
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012
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Word Origin and History for lower
v.

c.1600, "to descend, sink," from lower (adj.), from Middle English lahghere (c.1200), comparative of low (adj.). Transitive meaning "to let down, to cause to descend" attested from 1650s. Related: Lowered; lowering. In the sense "to cause to descend" the simple verb low (Middle English lahghenn, c.1200) was in use into the 18c.

"to look dark and threatening," also lour, Middle English louren, luren "to frown" (early 13c.), "to lurk" (mid-15c.), from Old English *luran or from its cognates, Middle Low German luren, Middle Dutch loeren "lie in wait." Form perhaps assimilated to lower (1). Related: Lowered; lowering.

adj.

c.1200, lahre, comparative of lah (see low (adj.)).

low

adj.

"not high," late 13c., from lah (late 12c.), "not rising much, being near the base or ground" (of objects or persons); "lying on the ground or in a deep place" (late 13c.), from Old Norse lagr "low," or a similar Scandinavian source (cf. Swedish låg, Danish lav), from Proto-Germanic *lega- "lying flat, low" (cf. Old Frisian lech, Middle Dutch lage, Dutch laag "low," dialectal German läge "flat"), from PIE *legh- "to lie" (see lie (v.2)).

Meaning "humble in rank" is from c.1200; "undignified" is from 1550s; sense of "dejected, dispirited" is attested from 1737; meaning "coarse, vulgar" is from 1759. In reference to sounds, "not loud," also "having a deep pitch," it is attested from c.1300. Of prices, from c.1400. In geographical usage, low refers to the part of a country near the sea-shore (c.1300; e.g. Low Countries "Holland, Belgium, Luxemburg," 1540s). As an adverb c.1200, from the adjective.

v.

Old English hlowan "make a noise like a cow," from Proto-Germanic *khlo- (cf. Middle Dutch loeyen, Dutch loeien, Old Low Franconian luon, Old High German hluojen), from imitative PIE root *kele- (2) "to shout" (see claim (v.)).

n.

sound made by cows, 1540s, from low (v.).

"hill," obsolete except in place names, Old English hlaw "hill, mound," especially "barrow," related to hleonian "to lean" (see lean (v.)). Cf. Latin clivus "hill" from the same PIE root.

adv.

early 13c., from low (adj.). Of voices or sounds, from c.1300.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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lower in Science
lower
  (lō'ər)   
Being an earlier division of the geological or archaeological period named. Compare upper.
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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Slang definitions & phrases for lower

low

adjective

Sad; melancholy: I was so low and depressed (1744+)

noun

A bad reaction to a narcotic; bummer (1960s+ Narcotics)

Related Terms

keep a low profile, lay low, lie low


The Dictionary of American Slang, Fourth Edition by Barbara Ann Kipfer, PhD. and Robert L. Chapman, Ph.D.
Copyright (C) 2007 by HarperCollins Publishers.
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Idioms and Phrases with lower
The American Heritage® Idioms Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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