a pipe conducting water from a head gate to a waterwheel.
a conduit for conveying water to a power plant. See diag. under dam1.
a sluicelike contrivance used to control the flow of water.

1600–10; pen2 + stock Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
penstock (ˈpɛnˌstɒk)
1.  a conduit that supplies water to a hydroelectric power plant
2.  a channel bringing water from the head gates to a water wheel
3.  a sluice for controlling water flow
[C17: from pen² + stock]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
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American Heritage
Science Dictionary
penstock   (pěn'stŏk')  Pronunciation Key 
  1. A sluice or gate used to control a flow of water.

  2. A pipe or conduit used to carry water to a water wheel or turbine.

The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences
Gravity causes it to fall through the penstock inside the dam.
To generate hydroelectricity, water from a river or reservoir is directed into
  a large pipe called a penstock.
Check condition of interior coating and exterior coating of exposed portions of
The water pressure is funneled through a tunnel through the dam called a
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