the act or right of claiming or purchasing before or in preference to others.
Also, pre-emption.

1595–1605; < Medieval Latin praeëmpt(us) bought beforehand (past participle of praeëmere) + -ion. See pre-, emptor Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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1. the judicial principle asserting the supremacy of federal over state legislation on the same subject 
2. the right of a government to seize or appropriate something (as property) 
3. the right to purchase something in advance of others 
4. a prior appropriation of something; "the preemption of bandwidth by commercial interests" 
WordNet® 3.0, © 2006 by Princeton University.
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Example sentences
The traders will be allowed to dispose of their effects, the allied army having
  the right of preemption.
But preemption can also work to reverse the loyalty tax.
Let me say a word about what you call the new strategy of preemption.
The primary goal is probably federal preemption of potentially stricter state
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