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the daily ritual prayer enjoined upon all Muslims as one of the five Pillars of Islam (arkan al-Islam). There is disagreement among Islamic scholars as to whether some passages about prayer in the Muslim sacred scripture, the Qur'an, are actually references to the salat. Within Muhammad's lifetime five ritual prayers, each preceded by ablution, were observed: salat al-fajr (dawn), az-zuhr (midday), al-'asr (afternoon), al-maghrib (sunset), and al-'isha' (evening). Under such special circumstances as illness, a journey, or war, a modification or limited postponement of these salats is allowed