a sour liquid consisting of dilute and impure acetic acid, obtained by acetous fermentation from wine, cider, beer, ale, or the like: used as a condiment, preservative, etc.
Pharmacology. a solution of a medicinal substance in dilute acetic acid, or vinegar.
sour or irritable speech, manner, or countenance: a note of vinegar in his voice.
Informal. vigor; high spirits; vim.

1250–1300; Middle English vinegre < Old French, equivalent to vin wine + egre, aigre sour (see eager1)

vinegarlike, adjective Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
vinegar (ˈvɪnɪɡə)
1.  a sour-tasting liquid consisting of impure dilute acetic acid, made by oxidation of the ethyl alcohol in beer, wine, or cider. It is used as a condiment or preservative
2.  sourness or peevishness of temper, countenance, speech, etc
3.  pharmacol a medicinal solution in dilute acetic acid
4.  informal (US), (Canadian) vitality
5.  (tr) to apply vinegar to
[C13: from Old French vinaigre, from vinwine + aigre sour, from Latin acer sharp]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Word Origin & History

c.1300, from O.Fr. vinaigre, from vin "wine" (from L. vinum, see wine) + aigre "sour" (see eager). In L., it was vinum acetum "wine turned sour;" cf. also Gk. oxos "wine vinegar," which is related to oxys "sharp" (see acrid).
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

vinegar vin·e·gar (vĭn'ĭ-gər)
An impure dilute solution of acetic acid obtained by fermentation beyond the alcohol stage and used as a preservative.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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Bible Dictionary

Vinegar definition

Heb. hometz, Gr. oxos, Fr. vin aigre; i.e., "sour wine." The Hebrew word is rendered vinegar in Ps. 69:21, a prophecy fulfilled in the history of the crucifixion (Matt. 27:34). This was the common sour wine (posea) daily made use of by the Roman soldiers. They gave it to Christ, not in derision, but from compassion, to assuage his thirst. Prov. 10:26 shows that there was also a stronger vinegar, which was not fit for drinking. The comparison, "vinegar upon nitre," probably means "vinegar upon soda" (as in the marg. of the R.V.), which then effervesces.

Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary
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Example sentences
If it was too wet to light a fire, they had to subsist on hardtack biscuits and
  cold sowbelly doused in vinegar.
Infusing oil and vinegar is a great way to capture the flavor of fresh herbs
  without preserving the herbs themselves.
Left to its own devices, wine will eventually turn to vinegar.
If someone is exaggerating about such a place, he is said to be adding oil and
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