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-some1

1.
a native English suffix formerly used in the formation of adjectives:
quarrelsome; burdensome.
Origin
Middle English; Old English -sum; akin to Gothic -sama, German -sam; see same

-some2

1.
a collective suffix used with numerals:
twosome; threesome.
Origin
Middle English -sum, Old English sum; special use of some (pronoun)

-some3

1.
a combining form meaning “body,” used in the formation of compound words:
chromosome.
Also, -soma.
Origin
< Greek sôma body; see soma1
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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British Dictionary definitions for -some

-some1

suffix
1.
characterized by; tending to: awesome, tiresome
Word Origin
Old English -sum; related to Gothic -sama, German -sam

-some2

suffix
1.
indicating a group of a specified number of members: threesome
Word Origin
Old English sum, special use of some (determiner)

-some3

/-səʊm/
combining form
1.
a body: chromosome
Word Origin
from Greek sōma body
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012
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Word Origin and History for -some

word-forming element used in making adjectives from nouns or adjectives (and sometimes verbs) and meaning "tending to; causing; to a considerable degree," from Old English -sum, identical with som (see some). Cf. Old Frisian -sum, German -sam, Old Norse -samr; also related to same.

suffix added to numerals meaning "a group of (that number)," e.g. twosome, from pronoun use of Old English sum "some" (see some). Originally a separate word used with the genitive plural (e.g. sixa sum "six-some"); the inflection disappeared in Middle English and the pronoun was absorbed. Use of some with a number meaning "approximately" also was in Old English.

word-forming element meaning "the body," Modern Latin, from Greek soma "the body" (see somato-).

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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-some in Medicine

-some suff.

  1. Body: centrosome.

  2. Chromosome: autosome.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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