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city, Toscana (Tuscany) regione, north-central Italy, in a fertile plain near the confluence of the Chiana and Arno rivers southeast of Florence. An important Etruscan city, it was known to the Romans as Arretium and was noted for its red-clay Arretine pottery. A flourishing commune in the Middle Ages, it fell to Florence in 1384 and later became part of the grand duchy of Tuscany. After a short period of French rule during the Napoleonic Wars, the rule of the Habsburg grand dukes was restored until Arezzo became part of Italy in 1861. The city was severely damaged in World War II.