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gemeente (municipality), eastern Netherlands, on the north bank of the Lower Rhine (Neder Rijn) River. Possibly the site of the Roman settlement of Arenacum, it was first mentioned in 893. Chartered and fortified in 1233 by Otto II, count of Geldern, it joined the Hanseatic League in 1443. As the residence of the dukes of Geldern, it was often attacked by their Burgundian rivals and in 1543 fell to Charles V, who made it the seat of the Council of Gelderland. It came under the United Netherlands in 1585, and the following year Sir Philip Sidney, the English poet, statesman, and soldier, died there after being wounded in the battle of Zutphen. Seized and dismantled by the French in 1672, Arnhem was refortified in the 18th century only to fall again to the French in 1793. Occupied by the Germans during World War II, it was the object of a heroic but unsuccessful attempt by British and Polish airborne troops to secure the Rhine bridges in September 1944. A British war memorial, cemetery, and museum in the suburb of Oosterbeek commemorate the battle.
provincie, eastern and central Netherlands; it occupies an area (1,935 square miles [5,011 square km]) extending from the German border westward to the narrow Lake Veluwe (separating Gelderland from several polders of Flevoland province) between the provinces of Overijssel (north) and Noord-Brabant, Zuid-Holland, and Utrecht (south). Its capital is Arnhem.