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city, eastern Ukraine, on the Bakhmut River. The town originated in the 17th century as a fort protecting the Russian frontiers against the Crimean Tatars. Peter I (the Great) established a salt industry there in 1701, but seven years later the fort was destroyed in the Bulavin revolt. It officially became a town in 1783. Salt operations were revived in the 19th century; they gave rise to a chemical industry based similarly on local supplies of limestone and coke. There are also metalworking and light industries. Cultural amenities include an institute of the salt industry, various technical colleges, and medical, teacher-training, and music schools. Pop. (2001) 82,916; (2005 est.) 80,655.