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city, eastern Cuba. Lying on the Bayamo River, it was founded as San Salvador de Bayamo in 1513. In colonial times it was one of Cuba's most important cities, and it has been the scene of several uprisings, including the independence movement of 1895. It is now an important manufacturing, commercial, and transportation centre for the surrounding countryside, in which cattle raising is widespread and the dairy and tanning industries are well-developed; copper and manganese are mined in the area. Sugar, rice, coffee, and tobacco also are processed in the city, and tiles are manufactured. Bayamo is a railroad junction and lies on the central highway; it also has an airfield. Pop. (2002) 144,664.