best of all possible worlds
in the philosophy of the 17th- and 18th-century philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, the present world of monads (infinitesimal psychophysical entities) coordinated in preestablished harmony. Among all possible worlds that God could have created, his actual choice of one over the others required a "sufficient reason," which, for Leibniz, was the fact that this world was the "best"-despite the existence of evident evils; for any other "possible world" would have had evils of its own sort of even greater magnitude. Had it lacked a sufficient reason to explain its existence (and implicitly its contingency), the world for Leibniz would have existed of necessity. Voltaire's Candide (1759) was a satirical rejection of Leibniz' optimistic view of the world
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|an arrangement of five objects, as trees, in a square or rectangle, one at each corner and one in the middle.|
|a screen or mat covered with a dark material for shielding a camera lens from excess light or glare.|
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