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any of the diseases or injuries that affect human bones. Diseases and injuries of bones are major causes of abnormalities of the human skeletal system. Although physical injury, causing fracture, dominates over disease, fracture is but one of several common causes of bone disease, and disease is in fact a common cause of fracture. Bone diseases and injuries were formerly regarded as conditions that were more mechanical than metabolic. An improved understanding of the dual mechanical and chemical function of bone, however, has permitted a more integrated biological view