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short for The Ten Commandments, attested from late 13c. In Old English they were ða bebodu.
late 13c., "an order from an authority," from Old French comandement "order, command," from Latin *commandamentum, from *commandare (see command (v.)). Pronounced as four syllables until 17c.
Of þe x commandements ... þe first comondement is þis, O God we ssul honuri [c.1280]