caliph

[key-lif, kal-if]
noun
1.
a spiritual leader of Islam, claiming succession from Muhammad.
2.
any of the former Muslim rulers of Baghdad (until 1258) and of the Ottoman Empire (from 1571 until 1924).


Origin:
1350–1400; Middle English caliphe, califfe < Middle French < Medieval Latin calipha < Arabic khalīf(a) successor (of Muhammad), derivative of khalafa succeed

caliphal [kal-uh-fuhl, key-luh-] , adjective
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World English Dictionary
caliph, calif, kalif or khalif (ˈkeɪlɪf, ˈkæl-, ˈkeɪlɪf, ˈkæl-, ˈkeɪlɪf, ˈkæl-, ˈkeɪlɪf, ˈkæl-)
 
n
Islam the title of the successors of Mohammed as rulers of the Islamic world, later assumed by the Sultans of Turkey
 
[C14: from Old French, from Arabic khalīfa successor]
 
calif, calif, kalif or khalif
 
n
 
[C14: from Old French, from Arabic khalīfa successor]
 
kalif, calif, kalif or khalif
 
n
 
[C14: from Old French, from Arabic khalīfa successor]
 
khalif, calif, kalif or khalif
 
n
 
[C14: from Old French, from Arabic khalīfa successor]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

caliph
late 14c., from O.Fr. caliphe (12c., also algalife), from M.L. califa, from Arabic khalifa "successor," originally Abu-Bakr, who succeeded Muhammad in the role of leader of the faithful after the prophet's death.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
Even if the ruler was not law-abiding, the scholars still did not spontaneously declare a sitting caliph disqualified.
Shaggy forsaking the solving of mysteries so that they'll have time to spin tales for a cranky caliph.
We know from our own time what the caliph was dreading.
She helps them to discover that the caliph's greedy brother had plotted with the magician to become ruler.
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