any member of a small class of words distinguished in many languages by their function as connectors between words, phrases, clauses, or sentences, as and, because, but, however.
any other word or expression of similar function, as in any case.
the act of conjoining; combination.
the state of being conjoined; union; association: The police, in conjunction with the army, established order.
a combination of events or circumstances.
a compound proposition that is true if and only if all of its component propositions are true.
the relation among the components of such a proposition, usually expressed by AND or & or .
the coincidence of two or more heavenly bodies at the same celestial longitude.
the state of two or more such coinciding heavenly bodies.
Astrology. the coincidence of two or more heavenly bodies at the same celestial longitude, characterized by a unification of the planetary energies; an astrological aspect.

1350–1400; Middle English conjunccio(u)n (< Anglo-French) < Latin conjunctiōn- (stem of conjunctiō). See conjunct, -ion

conjunctional, adjective
conjunctionally, adverb
nonconjunction, noun

2. joining, meeting, associating. Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
conjunction (kənˈdʒʌŋkʃən)
1.  the act of joining together; combination; union
2.  simultaneous occurrence of events; coincidence
3.  coordinating conjunction See also subordinating conjunction conj any word or group of words, other than a relative pronoun, that connects words, phrases, or clauses; for example and and while
4.  astronomy
 a.  the position of any two bodies that appear to meet, such as two celestial bodies on the celestial sphere
 b.  Compare opposition Also called: solar conjunction the position of a planet or the moon when it is in line with the sun as seen from the earth. The inner planets are in inferior conjunction when the planet is between the earth and the sun and in superior conjunction when the sun lies between the earth and the planet
5.  astrology opposition See square an exact aspect of 0° between two planets, etc, an orb of 8° being allowed
6.  logic
 a.  the operator that forms a compound sentence from two given sentences, and corresponds to the English and
 b.  a sentence so formed. Usually written p&q, p∧q, or p.q., where p,q are the component sentences, it is true only when both these are true
 c.  the relation between such sentences

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Word Origin & History

late 14c., from O.Fr. conjunction, from L. conjunctionem (nom. conjunctio), pp. of conjugare (see conjugal). Originally in Eng. of planets; grammatical sense (1380s) was in L., a loan-translation of Gk. syndesmos. Had the meaning "sexual union" 17c.-18c.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Science Dictionary
conjunction   (kən-jŭngk'shən)  Pronunciation Key 
The position of two celestial bodies when they have the same celestial longitude, especially a configuration in which a planet or the Moon lies on a straight line from Earth to or through the Sun. Planets in this position are not visible to the naked eye because they are in line with the Sun and obscured by its glare; the Moon in this position is new. ◇ The inner planets Mercury and Venus have two conjunction points with Earth. Either planet is at inferior conjunction when it lies directly between the Earth and the Sun, and is at superior conjunction when it lies directly opposite Earth on the far side of the Sun. The outer planets have only one conjunction point with Earth, when they lie opposite Earth on the far side of the Sun. Compare opposition. See more at elongation.
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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American Heritage
Cultural Dictionary

conjunction definition

A word that joins words or groups of words. There are three kinds of conjunctions: coordinating, correlative, and subordinating. Coordinating conjunctions include and, but, or, not, yet, for, and so. Correlative conjunctions include the words in the pairs either/or, both/and, and neither/nor. Subordinating conjunctions begin subordinate clauses (see subordination) and join them to the rest of the sentence: “She didn't learn the real reason until she left the valley.”

The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences
And it works out nicely to begin some sentences with conjunctions.
Conjunctions have been accepted as a proper way to begin a sentence for some
  time now.
It also tallies up so-called function words such as pronouns, articles,
  numerals and conjunctions.
Check that students have a better understanding of how to use conjunctions in
  making comparisons.
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