|berlin (bəˈlɪn, ˈbɜːlɪn, bəˈliːn, ˈbɜːliːn)|
|1.||(sometimes capital) Also called: berlin wool a fine wool yarn used for tapestry work, etc|
|2.||a four-wheeled two-seated covered carriage, popular in the 18th century|
|3.||a limousine with a glass partition between the front and rear seats|
|[C18: named after |
|Berlin1 (bɜːˈlɪn, German bɛrˈliːn)|
|the capital of Germany (1871--1945 and from 1990), formerly divided (1945--90) into the eastern sector, capital of East Germany, and the western sectors, which formed an exclave in East German territory closely affiliated with West Germany: a wall dividing the sectors was built in 1961 by the East German authorities to stop the flow of refugees from east to west; demolition of the wall began in 1989 and the city was formally reunited in 1990: formerly (1618--1871) the capital of Brandenburg and Prussia. Pop: 3 388 477 (2003 est)|
|1.||Irving. original name Israel Baline, 1888--1989, US composer and writer of lyrics, born in Russia. His musical comedies include Annie Get Your Gun (1946); his most popular song is White Christmas|
|2.||Sir Isaiah. 1909--97, British philosopher, born in Latvia, historian, and diplomat. His books include Historical Inevitability (1954) and The Magus of the North (1993)|
|(formerly) the part of Berlin under East German control|
|See also Germany German Democratic Republic, DDR, Official name: GDR a former republic in N central Europe: established in 1949 and declared a sovereign state by the Soviet Union in 1954; Communist regime replaced by a multiparty democracy in 1989; reunited with West Germany in 1990|
Note: Former Eastern Bloc and Warsaw Pact nation, established as a republic in 1949; formed out of land in the zone of Germany occupied by the Soviet Union after World War II.
Note: The Berlin Wall was erected in 1961 to keep East Germans from defecting to the West.
Note: Although high for a communist nation, the East German living standard lagged far behind that of western Europe. Popular protests for democracy forced the communist government to open the Berlin Wall in 1989 and allow its citizens to migrate to West Germany. Unable to resist the tide of reform sweeping across communist states, the East German government agreed in 1990 to the reunification of Germany under the leadership of West Germany.
Capital of reunited Germany, located in the northeastern part of the country.
Note: Formerly the capital of Prussia and then of Germany, Berlin was occupied by American, British, French, and Soviet troops after World War II. Disagreements among the Allies led to the partition of the city, with the Soviet zone becoming East Berlin, and the other zones West Berlin. East Berlin became the capital of the communist German Democratic Republic (East Germany), but West Berlin lost its capital status to Bonn in the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany).
Note: The Berlin Airlift of 1948–1949 supplied West Berlin by air transport after the Soviet Union set up a land and water blockade in an attempt to gain political control of this noncommunist “island” in the midst of communist East Germany.
Note: The two Berlins were physically separated by the Berlin Wall, a barrier designed to prevent East Germans from crossing into West Berlin, from 1961 to 1989.
Note: With the reunification of the two Germanys in 1990, the reunified city of Berlin was restored to its place as Germany's capital.