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Any of various marine invertebrates of the phylum Echinodermata, having a latticelike internal skeleton composed of calcite and usually a hard, spiny outer covering. The body plans of adult echinoderms show radial symmetry, typically in the pattern of a five-pointed star, while the larvae show bilateral symmetry. Echinoderms probably share a common ancestor with the hemichordates and chordates, and were already quite diversified by the Cambrian Era. They include the starfish, sea urchins, sand dollars, holothurians (sea cucumbers), and crinoids, as well as thousands of extinct forms.