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city in northern Vietnam, from Vietnamese Hà Nôi, literally "River Inside," from hà "river" + nôi "inside." So called in reference to its situation in a bend of the Red River. Known 18c. as Dong Kinh "Eastern Capital," which was corrupted by Europeans into Tonkin, Tonquin, and that name was used in the French colonial period to refer to the entire region and extended to the gulf to the east.
from Vietnamese Viet, the people's name + nam "south." Vietnam War attested by 1963.
Capital of Vietnam, located in the northern part of the country.
Note: It was the scene of heavy fighting between French and Vietnamese communist forces from 1946 to 1954.
Note: It became the capital of North Vietnam in 1954, when the French evacuated the city.
Note: During the Vietnam War, the city suffered heavy bombing by the United States.
Note: Vietnam was under the control of France from the second half of the nineteenth century until World War II, when it was occupied by the Japanese. The country became an autonomous state in 1946. France's attempts to reassert control resulted in the French Indochina War (1946–1954), in which the French were defeated.
Note: The Geneva Conference of 1954 divided Vietnam into North Vietnam, controlled by communists, and South Vietnam, controlled by noncommunists.
Note: In the Vietnam War of 1954–1975, South Vietnam, which was aided by the United States, fought communist insurgents, who were aided by North Vietnam. The war ended when the communists overran the south in 1975. The country was reunified in 1976.
Note: American involvement in the Vietnam War was strongly protested in the United States.
Note: Great numbers of Vietnamese refugees, known as boat people, fled the country in the aftermath of the war.
Note: Between 1978 and 1979, Vietnam invaded Cambodia and installed a puppet government.