a person who is confined in a prison, hospital, etc.
Archaic. a person who dwells with others in the same house.

1580–90; in-1 + mate1 Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
inmate (ˈɪnˌmeɪt)
1.  See also resident a person who is confined to an institution such as a prison or hospital
2.  obsolete a person who lives with others in a house

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Word Origin & History

1589, "one allowed to live in a house rented by another" (usually for a consideration), from in "inside" + mate "companion." Sense of "one confined to an institution" is first attested 1834.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
The project benefits inmates, the environment, and the prisons' budgets.
Twice a year, inmates enjoy a rodeo on the prison grounds with barbecues and
  bull riding.
The prison eventually transferred him to a cell with five other inmates, two of
  them violent crack addicts.
Methadone can help opiate-addicted inmates recover, and many countries have
  embraced it.
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