[lon-ji-tood-n-l, -tyood-]
of or pertaining to longitude or length: longitudinal measurement.
extending in the direction of the length of a thing; running lengthwise: a thin, longitudinal stripe.
Zoology. pertaining to or extending along the long axis of the body, or the direction from front to back, or head to tail.
pertaining to a research design or survey in which the same subjects are observed repeatedly over a period of time.
a longitudinal framing member, as in the hull of a ship.

1535–45; < Latin longitūdin- (stem of longitūdō; see longitude) + -al1

longitudinally, adverb
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World English Dictionary
longitudinal (ˌlɒndʒɪˈtjuːdɪnəl, ˌlɒŋɡ-)
1.  of or relating to longitude or length
2.  Compare transverse placed or extended lengthways
3.  psychol (of a study of behaviour) carried on over a protracted period of time

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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

longitudinal lon·gi·tu·di·nal (lŏn'jĭ-tōōd'n-əl, -tyōōd'-)
Running in the direction of the long axis of the body or any of its parts.

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Example sentences
Their next phase of work will be in tracking students' writing longitudinally
  across a three-year period.
The success of the paddling seems to depend on the swimmer's arms being able to
  curve longitudinally from north to south.
We see that in general income and life satisfaction correlate both in
  cross-section and longitudinally.
We can, first of all, look at financial statements longitudinally.
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