Mahmud II

Mahmud II

1785–1839, sultan of Turkey 1809–39. Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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Encyclopedia Britannica

mahmud ii

Ottoman sultan (1808-39) whose westernizing reforms helped to consolidate the Ottoman Empire despite defeats in wars and losses of territory

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Encyclopedia Britannica, 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
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