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Italian, literally "Charles's Mountain," founded 1866 and named for Charles III of Monaco (1818-1889). The car rally there dates to 1911.
City in Monaco, world famous for its gambling casino.
(After Monte Carlo, Monaco - a gambling mecca) Any one of various methods involving statistical techniques for finding the solutions to mathematical or physical problems.
For example, to calculate pi: draw a square then draw the biggest circle that fits exactly inside it. Pick random points on the square. The proportion of these that lie within the circle should tend to pi/4.