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gemeente (municipality), eastern Netherlands, on the Waal River (southern arm of the Rhine). It originated as the Roman settlement of Noviomagus and is the oldest town in The Netherlands. Often an imperial residence in the Carolingian period, it became a free city and later joined the Hanseatic League. In 1579 it subscribed to the Union of Utrecht against Spain. It was taken by the French (1672) in the third of the Dutch Wars, and the treaties-between Louis XIV, the Netherlands, Spain, and the Holy Roman Empire-that ended the hostilities were signed there in 1678-79. Nijmegen was the capital of Gelderland until its capture in 1794 by the French, who moved the capital to Arnhem. It served as a frontier fortress until its defenses were dismantled in 1878. Occupied by the Germans during World War II, the town was badly damaged and was the scene of an Allied airborne landing in 1944, during which the city centre was entirely destroyed. Rebuilt, Nijmegen is now an important focus of industry, a rail junction, and an inland shipping centre