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city, seat (1832) of Jefferson county, central Arkansas, U.S., about 40 miles (64 km) south-southeast of Little Rock. It is situated on high bluffs overlooking the Arkansas River. Settled in 1819 as a trading post by Joseph Bonne and known as Mount Marie, it was renamed in 1832 for its forest of giant pines. The city was the scene of an engagement (October 25, 1863) during the American Civil War when a Confederate force under General John S. Marmaduke was repulsed by a Union brigade under Colonel Powell Clayton, later a governor of and then U.S. senator from Arkansas