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earliest theoretical description of the inner structure of atoms, proposed about 1900 by Lord Kelvin and strongly supported by Sir Joseph John Thomson, who had discovered (1897) the electron, a negatively charged part of every atom. Though several alternative models were advanced in the 1900s by Lord Kelvin and others, Thomson held that atoms are uniform spheres of positively charged matter in which electrons are embedded. Popularly known as the plum-pudding model, it had to be abandoned (1911) on both theoretical and experimental grounds in favour of the Rutherford atomic model, in which the electrons describe orbits about a tiny positive nucleus