republic

[ri-puhb-lik]
noun
1.
a state in which the supreme power rests in the body of citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by representatives chosen directly or indirectly by them.
2.
any body of persons viewed as a commonwealth.
3.
a state in which the head of government is not a monarch or other hereditary head of state.
4.
(initial capital letter) any of the five periods of republican government in France. Compare First Republic, Second Republic, Third Republic, Fourth Republic, Fifth Republic.
5.
(initial capital letter, italics) a philosophical dialogue (4th century b.c.) by Plato dealing with the composition and structure of the ideal state.

Origin:
1595–1605; < French république, Middle French < Latin rēs pūblica, equivalent to rēs thing, entity + pūblica public

semirepublic, noun
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
republic (rɪˈpʌblɪk)
 
n
1.  a form of government in which the people or their elected representatives possess the supreme power
2.  a political or national unit possessing such a form of government
3.  a constitutional form in which the head of state is an elected or nominated president
4.  any community or group that resembles a political republic in that its members or elements exhibit a general equality, shared interests, etc: the republic of letters
 
[C17: from French république, from Latin rēspublica literally: the public thing, from rēs thing + publicapublic]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

republic
1604, "state in which supreme power rests in the people," from Fr. république, from L. respublica (abl. republica), lit. res publica "public interest, the state," from res "affair, matter, thing" + publica, fem. of publicus "public" (see public). Republican (adj.)
"belonging to a republic" is recorded from 1712; in noun sense of "one who favors a republic" it is recorded from 1697; and in sense of a member of a specific U.S. political party (the Anti-Federalists) from 1782, though this was not the ancestor of the modern Republican Party, which dates from 1854. Republicrat in U.S. political jargon usually meaning "moderate," is attested from 1940.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Cultural Dictionary

republic definition


A form of government in which power is explicitly vested in the people, who in turn exercise their power through elected representatives. Today, the terms republic and democracy are virtually interchangeable, but historically the two differed. Democracy implied direct rule by the people, all of whom were equal, whereas republic implied a system of government in which the will of the people was mediated by representatives, who might be wiser and better educated than the average person. In the early American republic, for example, the requirement that voters own property and the establishment of institutions such as the Electoral College were intended to cushion the government from the direct expression of the popular will.

The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences
So, education gets short changed even though it's necessary to sustain a functioning republic.
Otherwise, we're headed for full banana-republic status.
Aftermath the republic was under great pressure from both left and rightwing extremists.
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