body of English merchants trading with Russia. The company was formed in 1555 by the navigator and explorer Sebastian Cabot and various London merchants and was granted a monopoly of Anglo-Russian trade. It was the first English joint-stock company in which the capital remained regularly in use instead of being repaid after every voyage. In 1553 Sir Hugh Willoughby and Richard Chancellor had sailed to seek out a Northeast Passage to China and the East Indies (Indonesian archipelago). Willoughby's ship was lost, but Chancellor reached Arkhangelsk (Archangel) on the White Sea and established trade links with Moscow
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