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sambo

[sam-boh] /ˈsæm boʊ/
noun, plural sambos. Older Use: Now Offensive.
1.
a term used to refer to a black person, especially a male.
2.
a term used to refer to a Latin American of black and Indian or mulatto ancestry.
Also, zambo.
Origin
1690-1700
1690-1700, Americanism; < American Spanish zambo black person, mulatto, perhaps special use of Spanish zambo bowlegged, said to be < Latin scambus < Greek skambós crooked
Usage note
Sambo was a common given name among black people during the slavery era; it was later a neutral term for a black person. However, after World War II, an increasing sensitivity to racial stereotypes caused the term to be perceived as demeaning and insulting.
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Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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British Dictionary definitions for sambo

sambo1

/ˈsæmbəʊ/
noun (pl) -bos
1.
(slang) an archaic and taboo word for a Black person: once used as a term of address
2.
(archaic) the offspring of a Black person and a member of another race or a mulatto
Word Origin
C18: from American Spanish zambo a person of Black descent; perhaps related to Bantu nzambu monkey

sambo2

/ˈsæmbəʊ/
noun
1.
a type of wrestling based on judo that originated in Russia and now features in international competitions
Derived Forms
sambo wrestler, noun
Word Origin
C20: from Russian sam(ozashchita) b(ez) o(ruzhiya) self-defence without weapons
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012
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Word Origin and History for sambo
n.

"person of mixed blood in America and Asia," 1748, perhaps from Spanish zambo "bandy-legged," probably from Latin scambus "bow-legged," from Greek skambos. Used variously in different regions to indicate some mixture of African, European, and Indian blood; common senses were "child of black and Indian parentage" and "offspring of a black and a mulatto."

stereotypical name for male black person (now only derogatory), 1818, American English, probably a different word from sambo (n.1); like many such words (Cuffy, Rastus, etc.) a common personal name among U.S. blacks in the slavery days (first attested 1704 in Boston), probably from an African source, cf. Foulah sambo "uncle," or a similar Hausa word meaning "second son."

It could be used without conscious racism or contempt until circa World War II. When the word fell from polite usage, collateral casualties included the enormously popular children's book "The Story of Little Black Sambo" (by Helen Bannerman), which is about an East Indian child, and the Sambo's Restaurant chain, a U.S. pancake-specialty joint originally opened in Santa Barbara, Calif., in 1957 (the name supposedly from a merging of the names of the founders, Sam Battistone and Newell "Bo" Bohnett, but the chain's decor and advertising leaned heavily on the book), which once counted 1,200 units coast-to-coast. Civil rights agitation against it began in 1970s and the chain collapsed, though the original restaurant still is open. Many of the defunct restaurants were taken over by rival Denny's.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Encyclopedia Article for sambo

(Russian: "self-defense without weapons"), form of wrestling developed in the Soviet Union in the 1930s from elements of several Soviet regional styles. It is also practiced in Japan and Bulgaria. In 1964 it was recognized by the International Federation of Amateur Wrestling. It is similar to both judo and freestyle. Strangling, kicking, and scratching are among the few tactics forbidden

Learn more about sambo with a free trial on Britannica.com
Encyclopedia Britannica, 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
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