a member of a Germanic people in ancient times dwelling near the mouth of the Elbe, a portion of whom invaded and occupied parts of Britain in the 5th and 6th centuries.
the Old English dialects of the regions settled by the Saxons.
a native or inhabitant of Saxony in modern Germany.
an English person; Britisher.
an Anglo-Saxon.
(not in scholarly use) the Old English language.
a member of the royal house of Germany that ruled from 919 to 1024.
of or pertaining to the early Saxons or their language.
of or pertaining to Saxony in modern Germany.
English ( defs 1, 2 ).

1250–1300; Middle English, probably < Late Latin Saxō, Saxonēs (plural) < Germanic; replacing Old English Seaxan (plural)

non-Saxon, noun, adjective
pre-Saxon, adjective, noun Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
Saxon (ˈsæksən)
1.  a member of a West Germanic people who in Roman times spread from Schleswig across NW Germany to the Rhine. Saxons raided and settled parts of S Britain in the fifth and sixth centuries ad. In Germany they established a duchy and other dominions, which changed and shifted through the centuries, usually retaining the name Saxony
2.  a native or inhabitant of Saxony
3.  a.  the Low German dialect of Saxony
 b.  any of the West Germanic dialects spoken by the ancient Saxons or their descendants
4.  of, relating to, or characteristic of the ancient Saxons, the Anglo-Saxons, or their descendants
5.  of, relating to, or characteristic of Saxony, its inhabitants, or their Low German dialect
[C13 (replacing Old English Seaxe): via Old French from Late Latin Saxon-, Saxo, from Greek; of Germanic origin and perhaps related to the name of a knife used by the Saxons; compare saw1]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Word Origin & History

c.1300, from L.L. Saxonem (nom. Saxo), usually found in pl. Saxones, from P.Gmc. *sakhsan (cf. O.E. Seaxe, O.H.G. Sahsun, Ger. Sachse "Saxon"), with a possible literal sense of "swordsmen" (cf. O.E. seax, O.Fris., O.N. sax "knife, short sword, dagger," perhaps ult. from PIE root of
saw (1)). The word figures in the well-known story, related by Geoffrey of Monmouth, who got it from Nennius, of the treacherous slaughter by the Anglo-Saxons of their British hosts:
"Accordingly they all met at the time and place appointed, and began to treat of peace; and when a fit opportunity offered for executing his villany, Hengist cried out, "Nemet oure Saxas," and the same instant seized Vortigern, and held him by his cloak. The Saxons, upon the signal given, drew their daggers, and falling upon the princes, who little suspected any such design, assassinated them to the number of four hundred and sixty barons and consuls ...."
OED helpfully points out that the correct O.E. (with an uninflected plural) would be nimað eowre seax. For other national names that may have derived from characteristic tribal weapons, cf. Frank, Lombard. Still in 20c. used by Celtic speakers to mean "an Englishman." In ref. to the modern Ger. state of Saxony (Ger. Sachsen, Fr. Saxe) it is attested from 1634. Saxon is the source of the -sex in Essex, Sussex, etc. (cf. Middlesex, from O.E. Middel-Seaxe "Middle Saxons"). Bede distinguished the Anglo-Saxons, who conquered much of southern Britain, from the Eealdesaxe "Old Saxons," who stayed in Germany.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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