rational; reasoning: People are thinking animals.
thoughtful; reflective: Any thinking person would reject that plan.
thought; judgment, reflection: clear thinking.

1250–1300; Middle English thenking (noun). See think1, -ing2, -ing1

thinkingly, adverb
nonthinking, adjective, noun Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
thinking (ˈθɪŋkɪŋ)
1.  opinion or judgment
2.  the process of thought
3.  (prenominal) using or capable of using intelligent thought: thinking people
4.  put on one's thinking cap to ponder a matter or problem

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
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Word Origin & History

O.E. þencan "conceive in the mind, think, consider, intend" (past tense þohte, p.p. geþoht), probably originally "cause to appear to oneself," from P.Gmc. *thankjan (cf. O.Fris. thinka, O.S. thenkian, O.H.G. denchen, Ger. denken, O.N. þekkja, Goth. þagkjan); O.E. þencan
is the causative form of the distinct O.E. verb þyncan "to seem or appear" (past tense þuhte, pp. geþuht), from P.Gmc. *thunkjan (cf. Ger. dünken, däuchte). Both are from PIE *tong- "to think, feel" which also is the root of thought and thank. The two meanings converged in M.E. and þyncan "to seem" was absorbed, except for archaic methinks "it seems to me." Jocular pp. thunk (not historical, but by analogy of drink, sink, etc.) is recorded from 1876. Think-tank is 1959 as "research institute" (first ref. is to Center for Behavioral Sciences, Palo Alto, Calif.); it had been colloquial for "the brain" since 1905.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

thinking n.
The act or practice of a person who thinks; thought. adj.
Characterized by thought or thoughtfulness; rational.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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