going beyond what is usual or ordinary; excessive; extreme.
an extremist, as in politics, religion, fashion, etc.
(initial capital letter) Military. the British code name for intelligence gathered by decrypting German wireless communications enciphered on the Enigma machine during World War II.

independent use of ultra-, or shortening of words prefixed with it

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World English Dictionary
ultra (ˈʌltrə)
1.  extreme or immoderate, esp in beliefs or opinions
2.  an extremist
[C19: from Latin: beyond, from ulter distant]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Word Origin & History

prefix meaning "beyond" (ultraviolet) or "extremely" (ultramodern), from L. ultra- from ultra (adv. and prep.) "beyond, on the further side," from PIE *al- "beyond." In common use from early 19c., it appears to have arisen from Fr. political designations. As its own word, a noun meaning "extremist" of
various stripes, it is first recorded 1817, from Fr. ultra, shortening of ultra-royaliste "extreme royalist."

ne plus ultra
"utmost limit to which one can go," 1638, from L., lit. "no more beyond," traditionally inscribed on the Pillars of Hercules.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

ultra- pref.

  1. Beyond; on the other side of: ultraviolet.

  2. Beyond the range, scope, or limit of: ultrasonic.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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