abstention

[ab-sten-shuhn]
noun
1.
an act or instance of abstaining.
2.
withholding of a vote.

Origin:
1515–25; < Late Latin abstentiōn- (stem of abstentiō), equivalent to Latin abstent(us), past participle of abstinēre to abstain + -iōn- -ion

abstentious, adjective
nonabstention, noun
unabstentious, adjective

abstention, abstinence.
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World English Dictionary
abstention (əbˈstɛnʃən)
 
n
1.  a voluntary decision not to act; the act of refraining or abstaining
2.  the act of withholding one's vote
 
[C16: from Late Latin abstentiōn-, from Latin abstinēre. See abstain]
 
ab'stentious
 
adj

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

abstention
1520s, from Fr., from L. abstentionem (nom. abstentio) "the act of retaining," from abstentus, pp. of abstinere (see abstain).
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
Abstention would be equally effective but less counterproductive.
The voting record shows eight in favor, seven against and one abstention.
They also suggest that the abstention rate this year may be higher than ever
  before.
The result was five in favor, one opposed and one abstention.
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