noun, plural adversities for 2.
adverse fortune or fate; a condition marked by misfortune, calamity, or distress: A friend will show his or her true colors in times of adversity.
an adverse or unfortunate event or circumstance: You will meet many adversities in life.

1200–50; Middle English adversite (< Anglo-French) < Latin adversitās. See adverse, -ity

1. catastrophe, disaster; trouble, misery. 2. See affliction.

1. prosperity. Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
adversity (ədˈvɜːsɪtɪ)
n , pl -ties
1.  distress; affliction; hardship
2.  an unfortunate event or incident

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Word Origin & History

early 13c., aduersite, from O.Fr. aversite (Mod.Fr. adversité), from L. adversitatem "opposition," from adversus (see adverse).
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
He learns to welcome misfortune, learns that adversity is the prosperity of the
That dropped her to sixth place, but Clark is accustomed to rallying from
  deficits, not to mention coping with adversity.
Other protagonists also encounter tongue-in-cheek adversity.
He stressed the importance of remaining steadfast in the face of adversity.
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