Celtic tribe of central Gaul (occupying most of what was later the French region of Burgundy), chiefly responsible for the diplomatic situation exploited by Julius Caesar when he began his conquests in that region in 58 BC. The Aedui had been Roman allies since 121 BC and had been awarded the title of "brothers." In about 60 they were defeated by the German Ariovistus (see Sequani) and appealed to Rome for help. This appeal provided a pretext for Julius Caesar's continuing his war in Gaul in 58. The Aedui supported Caesar until near the end of the war, although they temporarily joined the rebellion of Vercingetorix in 52. Under Augustus they became a civitas foederata ("allied community") and moved from their hilltop of Bibracte (present-day Mont Beuvray) to a new capital at Augustodunum (present-day Autun), which became a prosperous and cultivated city. In AD 21 the Aedui joined the Gallic leader Sacrovir in his revolt, but they soon gave up. In 48 the Aedui elite, increasingly Romanized, became the first Gallic community to be allowed to provide senators for Rome
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