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in the Druze religion, five cosmic principles that are emanations from God, the One. Al-Hakim, the 11th-century Fatimid caliph of Egypt deified by the Druzes, stands at the centre of the universe as the embodiment of the One. Hamzah ibn 'Ali, a contemporary of al-Hakim, systematized the Druze religion and presented himself as the direct human link to the One; he then established a hierarchy of universal principles, or al-hudud, that would span the distance between the One and the mass of Druze believers.