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in zoology, a ritualized means of communicating a danger or threat among the members of an animal group. In many cases the signal is visual or vocal, but some animals-ants, bees, and certain fishes, for example-secrete chemical substances. Alarm communications frequently cross species boundaries. The hawking alarm calls of many small birds are similar and will cause most other birds to take cover. A visual alarm signal, common in mammals, is "flagging," the lifting of the tail to reveal its white undersurface. The white fur shows only in fright situations when the animal raises its tail as it bounds away. Biologists do not agree about the exact meaning of this common mammalian alarm response. While the alarm reaction usually takes the form of a freeze-or-flight response, it may, if the stimulus is within a critical distance, elicit an attack