ancient city of Latium, Italy, in the Alban Hills about 12 miles (19 km) southeast of Rome, near present Castel Gandolfo. Tradition attributes its founding (c. 1152 BC) to Ascanius, the son of the legendary Aeneas, thus making it, according to legend at least, the oldest Latin city, which in turn founded others, including Rome. Excavations have revealed cemeteries that date to the 10th century BC and provide valuable evidence of a prosperous Latin culture. Alba Longa headed a Latin league of uncertain extent until destroyed about 600 BC by Rome. Some distinguished families, including the Julian clan, were said to have migrated to Rome at that time. The name Albanum referred to the imperial villa in the Alban territory. The emperors formed a single estate out of a considerable part of this district, including apparently the whole of the lake, and Domitian (late 1st century AD) was especially fond of it. Under Septimius Severus it became a legionary camp. The imperial villa occupied the site of the present Villa Barberini at Castel Gandolfo, and considerable remains still exist.
Learn more about Alba Longa with a free trial on Britannica.com.