|Harold (Rupert Leofric George), Earl Alexander of Tunis. 1891--1969, British field marshal in World War II, who organized the retreat from Dunkirk and commanded in North Africa (1943) and Sicily and Italy (1944--45); governor general of Canada (1946--52); British minister of defence (1952--54)|
|Compare Walloon a native or inhabitant of Flanders or a Flemish-speaking Belgian|
|[C14: from Middle Dutch Vlaminc]|
|1.||Sir Alexander. 1881--1955, Scottish bacteriologist: discovered lysozyme (1922) and penicillin (1928): shared the Nobel prize for physiology or medicine in 1945|
|2.||Ian (Lancaster). 1908--64, English author of spy novels; creator of the secret agent James Bond|
|3.||Sir John Ambrose. 1849--1945, English electrical engineer: invented the thermionic valve (1904)|
|4.||Renée. born 1959, US operatic soprano and songwriter|
|1.||Sir Alexander. ?1755--1820, Scottish explorer and fur trader in Canada. He explored the Mackenzie River (1789) and was the first European to cross America north of Mexico (1793)|
|2.||Alexander. 1822--92, Canadian statesman; first Liberal prime minister (1873--78)|
|3.||Sir Compton. 1883--1972, English author. His works include Sinister Street (1913--14) and the comic novel Whisky Galore (1947)|
|4.||Sir Thomas. 1854--1930, New Zealand statesman born in Scotland: prime minister of New Zealand (1912)|
|5.||William Lyon. 1795--1861, Canadian journalist and politician, born in Scotland. He led an unsuccessful rebellion against the oligarchic Family Compact (1837)|
Fleming Flem·ing (flěm'ĭng), Sir Alexander. 1881-1955.
British bacteriologist who discovered penicillin in 1928. He shared a 1945 Nobel Prize for this achievement.
|Fleming (flěm'ĭng) Pronunciation Key
Scottish bacteriologist who discovered penicillin in 1928. The drug was developed and purified 11 years later by Howard Florey and Ernst Chain, with whom Fleming shared the 1945 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine. Fleming was also the first to administer typhoid vaccines to humans.
Our Living Language : Many famous scientific discoveries come about by accident, and such was the case with penicillin. The first and still best-known antibiotic, penicillin is a natural substance excreted by a type of mold of the genus Penicillium. It so happened that a Scottish bacteriologist, Alexander Fleming, was doing research on staphylococcal bacteria in the late 1920s and noticed that one culture had become contaminated with some mold. What was curious was that there was a circular area around the mold that was free of bacterial growth. After some investigation, Fleming discerned that the mold was excreting a substance deadly to the bacteria, and he named it penicillin in the mold's honor. Fleming had already discovered another natural antibacterial substance a few years earlier in 1921—lysozyme, an enzyme contained in tears and saliva. But the discovery of penicillin was of far greater importance, although its impact was not fully felt right away because Fleming lacked the equipment necessary to isolate the active compound and to synthesize it in quantities that could be used medicinally. This happened a dozen years later during World War II and stimulated the development of new drugs that could fight infections transmitted on the battlefield. Two other scientists, Ernst Chain and Howard Florey, were responsible for this further work, and together with Fleming the three shared the 1945 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine.
man-defender. (1.) A relative of Annas the high priest, present when Peter and John were examined before the Sanhedrim (Acts 4:6). (2.) A man whose father, Simon the Cyrenian, bore the cross of Christ (Mark 15:21). (3.) A Jew of Ephesus who took a prominent part in the uproar raised there by the preaching of Paul (Acts 19:33). The Jews put him forward to plead their cause before the mob. It was probably intended that he should show that he and the other Jews had no sympathy with Paul any more than the Ephesians had. It is possible that this man was the same as the following. (4.) A coppersmith who, with Hymenaeus and others, promulgated certain heresies regarding the resurrection (1 Tim. 1:19; 2 Tim. 4:14), and made shipwreck of faith and of a good conscience. Paul excommunicated him (1 Tim. 1:20; comp. 1 Cor. 5:5).