alliteration

[uh-lit-uh-rey-shuhn]
noun
1.
the commencement of two or more stressed syllables of a word group either with the same consonant sound or sound group (consonantal alliteration) as in from stem to stern, or with a vowel sound that may differ from syllable to syllable (vocalic alliteration) as in each to all. Compare consonance ( def 4a ).
2.
the commencement of two or more words of a word group with the same letter, as in apt alliteration's artful aid.

Origin:
1650–60; < Medieval Latin alliterātiōn-, stem of alliterātiō, equivalent to al- al- + literātiō, modeled after obliterātiō obliteration but intended to convey a derivative of littera letter

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World English Dictionary
alliteration (əˌlɪtəˈreɪʃən)
 
n
the use of the same consonant (consonantal alliteration) or of a vowel, not necessarily the same vowel (vocalic alliteration), at the beginning of each word or each stressed syllable in a line of verse, as in around the rock the ragged rascal ran
 
[C17: from Medieval Latin alliterātiō (from Latin al- (see ad-) + litera letter), on the model of obliterātiōobliteration]
 
al'literative
 
adj

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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

alliteration
1650s, "to begin with the same letter," from Mod.L. alliterationem (nom. alliteratio) from alliteratus, pp. of alliterare "to begin with the same letter," from L. ad- "to" + littera (also litera) "letter, script" (see letter). Formed on model of obliteration, etc.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Cultural Dictionary
alliteration [(uh-lit-uh-ray-shuhn)]

The repetition of the beginning sounds of words, as in “Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers,” “long-lived,” “short shrift,” and “the fickle finger of fate.”

The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences
The alliteration and meter wasn't entirely correct, but it made me laugh.
Think of a poet who employs a staff of experts in metaphor, meter, alliteration
  and lineation to commit an idea to paper.
The alliteration and rhyme may pique readers' interest, but the concept of a
  stapler trying to outwit an animal seems strained.
Students pick a favorite song with clean lyrics and use the lyrics to
  demonstrate poetry devices such as rhyme and alliteration.
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