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alpha particle n.
A positively charged nuclear particle, indistinguishable from a helium atom nucleus and consisting of two protons and two neutrons.
|alpha particle |
A positively charged particle that consists of two protons and two neutrons bound together. It is emitted by an atomic nucleus undergoing radioactive decay and is identical to the nucleus of a helium atom. Because of their relatively large mass, alpha particles are the slowest and least penetrating forms of nuclear radiation. They can be stopped by a piece of paper. See more at radioactive decay.
positively charged particle, identical to the nucleus of the helium-4 atom, spontaneously emitted by some radioactive substances, consisting of two protons and two neutrons bound together, thus having a mass of four units and a positive charge of two. Discovered and named (1899) by Ernest Rutherford, alpha particles were used by him and coworkers in experiments to probe the structure of atoms in thin metallic foils. This work resulted in the first concept of the atom as a tiny planetary system with negatively charged particles (electrons) orbiting around a positively charged nucleus (1909-11). Later, Rutherford bombarded nitrogen with alpha particles, changing it to oxygen, in the first artificially produced nuclear transmutation (1919). Today, alpha particles are produced for use as projectiles in nuclear research by ionization-i.e., by stripping both electrons from helium atoms-and then accelerating the now positively charged particle to high energies