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the largest general scientific society in the United States. It was founded in 1847 in Boston, Mass., by a number of geologists and naturalists and held its first meeting in Philadelphia, Pa., in 1848. Its goals are to further the work of scientists, to facilitate cooperation among them, to improve the effectiveness of science in the promotion of human welfare, and to increase public understanding and appreciation of the role of science in human progress. By the late 20th century the AAAS had more than 130,000 individual members. The organization represents all the major branches of science and is divided into sections representing most of them. The AAAS conducts conferences and meetings in coordination with its formal affiliates, which include nearly 300 scientific societies, professional organizations, and state and city scientific academies.