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breed of sporting dog originating in the United States in the late 1800s, bred to retrieve on land or to leap into the water from a boat to retrieve birds. Its ancestors are unknown, but the breed likely was developed from other spaniels and the Irish water spaniel or the curly-coated retriever, which it resembles. It was recognized by the American Kennel Club in 1940. As befits a sporting dog, it is muscular and active, with a broad skull and hanging ears. It is medium sized, standing 15 to 18 inches (38 to 45 cm) and weighing 25 to 45 pounds (11 to 20 kg). The liver-coloured, brown, or chocolate coat is curly or marcelled (uniformly waved) everywhere except on the face; some dogs have a little white on the chest and toes.