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French chef, confectioner, and distiller who invented the method of preserving food by enclosing it in hermetically sealed containers. Inspired by the French Directory's offer of a prize for a way to conserve food for transport, Appert began a 14-year period of experimentation in 1795. Using corked-glass containers reinforced with wire and sealing wax and kept in boiling water for varying lengths of time, he preserved soups, fruits, vegetables, juices, dairy products, marmalades, jellies, and syrups. A 12,000-franc award in 1810 specified that he publish his findings, which appeared that year as L'Art de conserver, pendant plusieurs annees, toutes les substances animales et vegetales (The Art of Preserving All Kinds of Animal and Vegetable Substances for Several Years). He used the money to establish the first commercial cannery, the House of Appert, at Massy, which operated from 1812 until 1933. Appert also developed the bouillon tablet, devised a nonacid gelatin-extraction method, and perfected an autoclave.