argument

[ahr-gyuh-muhnt]
noun
1.
an oral disagreement; verbal opposition; contention; altercation: a violent argument.
2.
a discussion involving differing points of view; debate: They were deeply involved in an argument about inflation.
3.
a process of reasoning; series of reasons: I couldn't follow his argument.
4.
a statement, reason, or fact for or against a point: This is a strong argument in favor of her theory.
5.
an address or composition intended to convince or persuade; persuasive discourse.
6.
subject matter; theme: The central argument of his paper was presented clearly.
7.
an abstract or summary of the major points in a work of prose or poetry, or of sections of such a work.
8.
Mathematics.
a.
an independent variable of a function.
b.
Also called amplitude. the angle made by a given vector with the reference axis.
c.
the angle corresponding to a point representing a given complex number in polar coordinates. Compare principal argument.
9.
Computers. a variable in a program, to which a value will be assigned when the program is run: often given in parentheses following a function name and used to calculate the function.
10.
Obsolete.
a.
evidence or proof.
b.
a matter of contention.

Origin:
1325–75; Middle English (< Old French) < Latin argūmentum. See argue, -ment

reargument, noun


1. Argument, controversy, dispute imply the expression of opinions for and against some idea. An argument usually arises from a disagreement between two persons, each of whom advances facts supporting his or her own point of view. A controversy or a dispute may involve two or more persons. A dispute is an oral contention, usually brief, and often of a heated, angry, or undignified character: a violent dispute over a purchase. A controversy is an oral or written expression of contrary opinions, and may be dignified and of some duration: a political controversy.
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World English Dictionary
argument (ˈɑːɡjʊmənt)
 
n
1.  a quarrel; altercation
2.  a discussion in which reasons are put forward in support of and against a proposition, proposal, or case; debate: the argument on birth control will never be concluded
3.  (sometimes plural) a point or series of reasons presented to support or oppose a proposition
4.  a summary of the plot or subject of a book, etc
5.  logic
 a.  a process of deductive or inductive reasoning that purports to show its conclusion to be true
 b.  formally, a sequence of statements one of which is the conclusion and the remainder the premises
6.  logic an obsolete name for the middle term of a syllogism
7.  maths
 a.  an element to which an operation, function, predicate, etc, applies, esp the independent variable of a function
 b.  the amplitude of a complex number

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

argument
late 14c., "statements and reasoning in support of a proposition," from Fr. argument (13c.), from L. argumentum, from arguere "to argue" (see argue). Sense passed through "subject of contention" to "a quarrel," a sense formerly attached to argumentation.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
So much of the debate rests upon sauropod physiology that without a living
  animal to study the arguments will continue.
Still, over the decades researchers who doubted the dinosaur-bird link also
  made good anatomical arguments.
But attempts to unravel that history have produced many interpretations and
  arguments.
Critics of such arguments have pointed out that these problems are not
  necessarily unique to primates.
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