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city, Cowley county, southern Kansas, U.S. It lies near the confluence of the Arkansas and Walnut rivers. Founded in 1870, it was successively named Walnut City, Adelphi, and Creswell; the present name was adopted at the city's incorporation (1872). It was a starting place for the 1893 settlement of the Cherokee Strip in Indian Territory (now Oklahoma), and the Cherokee Strip Land Rush Museum is 2 miles (3 km) south of the city. In 1869-70 Wild West entrepreneur William "Buffalo Bill" Cody, then a U.S. marshal, made his headquarters in Arkansas City, where he ended a persistent problem with cattle theft in the vicinity. Oil was discovered nearby in 1914. Arkansas City is a shipping centre and a railroad junction with repair shops. Oil refining, tile manufacturing, flour milling, meat-packing, and food processing are important industries. Cowley County Community College was founded there in 1922. Cowley State Fishing Lake is nearby. Pop. (1990) 12,762; (2000) 11,963.